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Scattering of Electromagnetic Waves by Particles

S. Yushanov, J. Crompton, and K. C. Koppenhoefer, Altasim Technologies, OH, USA

When electromagnetic waves propagate through matter, they interact with inhomogeneities and particles that can locally disrupt the electron distribution, causing electromagnetic radiation and scattering. One mathematical model used to describe the scattering of electromagnetic waves is called Mie scattering, which provides a general solution independent of particle size. Examples of phenomena ...

Optimized Induction Heating Techniques Improve Manufacturing Processes

I. Jain,
Tata Steel, India

Induction heating has become a valuable tool used by the steel industry for manufacturing various metal products. The process provides more precise heating control, uses less energy, and offers better quality assurance and reliability than traditional production processes. Tata Steel, one of the top ten steel companies worldwide, is using multiphysics simulation to analyze the electromagnetic, ...

Optimizing Built-in Tire Pressure Monitoring Sensors

C. Evans, Schrader Electronics, Ireland

Built-in tire pressure sensors need to be able to withstand the wear and tear of working within a car’s tire rim. Their design needs to be optimized for both sensitivity and strength. Schrader Electronics built a sensor that works accurately and lasts while operating on a moving tire's rim. They used the Structural Mechanics Module and CAD Import Module of COMSOL Multiphysics to optimize their ...

Modeling Helps Improve Safety in the Production of Teflon

Martin Beckmann-Kluge & Fabio Ferrero

BAM German Federal Institute for Materials Research & Testing, Berlin, Germany

BAM German Federal Institute for Materials Research & Testing in Berlin promotes industrial development by providing research and consultation on materials technology and chemical engineering. Their recent work has been in analyzing the process by which highly flammable TFE gas is converted into a solid called PTFE (polytetrafluoroethylene), or the non-stick coating commonly known as Teflon. ...

Innovative Packaging Design for Electronics in Extreme Environments

Brice McPherson

Power electronics appear in many everyday products, including smartphones, electronic car parts, and household objects. Such devices require controlled temperature ranges, switching frequencies, and voltage levels to operate smoothly and reliably. For harsh environments, such as the depths below the earth’s surface where oil is drilled, there is an increasing need to develop electronic systems ...

How Reclosers Ensure a Seady Supply of Power: It’s All in the Magnet

O. Craciun, and colleagues
Ladenburgh, Germany

When a tree branch touches overhead cables and causes a momentary short circuit, your lights may flicker. A device called a recloser ensures that power to your home is not cut off for a longer period. ABB AG, a leading manufacturer in power technology, is working towards designing a more reliable recloser. One objective in this design process was to optimize the size of the permanent magnet ...

Pushing the Limits of Chip Density

Derek Bassett and Michael Carcasi
Tokyo Electron America
Austin, TX

Chip manufacturers have been adhering to Moore’s law, a law stating that the number of transistors that can be economically placed on an integrated circuit doubles every year, since 1965. As the number of transistors increases, however, the process of manufacturing integrated circuit, called photolithography, becomes more difficult. Each device requires approximately 200 cleaning and ...

A 100-Fold Improvement in Lithography Resolution Realized with a 150-Year-Old “Perfect Imaging” System

Juan Carlos Miñano and Dejan Grabovičkić
Cedint Polytechnic University of Madrid

The idea of "perfect imaging", that is a resolution less than the wavelength of light producing the image, was first proposed in the mid-19th century by famed Scottish physicist James Clerk Maxwell. For the next 150 years, it was widely believed that such was impossible due to the fact that light diffracts around points that are the same size or smaller in wavelength. Then, in 2009, Ulf ...

Control of Joule Heating Extends Performance and Device Life

Jean-Louis Gelet and Antoine Gerlaud
Mersen, France

Large electrical systems carrying high currents could pose a danger if any of their components, such as fuses and bus bars, fail. In order to increase safety and improve manufacturing, it is necessary to understand the failure mechanisms of those components. One of those components, a bus bar, is made up of a single piece of conducting metal that replaces individual, thick cables when conducting ...

Keeping LEDs Cool Gets More Manageable Through Simulation

Aulis Tuominen and Mika Maaspuro
University of Turku
Turku, Finland

Toni Lopez
Philips Research
Eindhoven, The Netherlands

Sami Yllikäinen
Hella Lighting Finland Oy
Salo, Finland

Raimo Laitinen
Helvar Oy Ab
Karkkila, Finland

Light-emitting diodes (LEDs) offer many benefits over incandescent lighting, such as long life spans and high luminous efficiency, and they are environmentally friendly. One of the drawbacks, however, is that LEDs need to operate at the lowest possible temperatures and this must be carefully regulated. Researchers at Business and Innovation Development Technology at the University of Turku in ...