Particle Tracing for Fluid Flow                      
Bidirectionally Coupled Particle Tracing                      
Time Dependent                      
Compressible Euler Equations                      
Time Dependent                      
Laminar Flow                      
Stationary                      
Time Dependent                      
Turbulent Flow, kepsilon                      
Stationary                      
Time Dependent                      
Turbulent Flow, SpalartAllmaras                      
Rotating Machinery, Level Set, kepsilon                      
Rotating Machinery, Level Set, SST                      
Stationary with Initialization                      
Time Dependent with Initialization                      
Bubbly Flow, Algebraic yPlus                      
Stationary with Initialization                      
Time Dependent with Initialization                      
Bubbly Flow, kepsilon                      
Stationary                      
Time Dependent                      
Bubbly Flow, komega                      
Stationary                      
Stationary with Initialization                      
Time Dependent                      
Time Dependent with Initialization                      
Bubbly Flow, LVEL                      
Stationary with Initialization                      
Time Dependent with Initialization                      
Bubbly Flow, Laminar Flow                      
Stationary                      
Time Dependent                      
Bubbly Flow, LowReynolds kepsilon                      
Stationary with Initialization                      
Time Dependent with Initialization                      
Bubbly Flow, Realizable kepsilon                      
Stationary                      
TimeDependent                      
Bubbly Flow, SpalartAllmaras                      
Stationary with Initialization                      
Time Dependent with Initialization                      
Bubbly Flow, SST                      
Stationary with Initialization                      
Time Dependent with Initialization                      
Bubbly Flow, v2f                      
Stationary with Initialization                      
Time Dependent with Initialization                      
EulerEuler Model, Laminar Flow                      
Stationary                      
Time Dependent                      
EulerEuler Model, Turbulent Flow                      
Stationary                      
Time Dependent                      
Laminar TwoPhase Flow, Moving Mesh                      
Time Dependent                      
Mixture Model, Algebraic yPlus                      
Stationary with Initialization                      
Time Dependent with Initialization                      
Mixture Model, kepsilon                      
Stationary                      
Time Dependent                      
Mixture Model, komega                      
Stationary                      
Stationary with Initialization                      
Time Dependent                      
Time Dependent with Initialization                      
Mixture Model, LVEL                      
Stationary with Initialization                      
Time Dependent with Initialization                      
Mixture Model, Laminar Flow                      
Stationary                      
Time Dependent                      
Mixture Model, LowReynolds kepsilon                      
Stationary with Initialization                      
Time Dependent with Initialization                      
Mixture Model, Realizable kepsilon                      
Stationary                      
Time Dependent                      
Mixture Model, SpalartAllmaras                      
Stationary with Initialization                      
Time Dependent with Initialization                      
Mixture Model, SST                      
Stationary with Initialization                      
Time Dependent with Initialization 
Mixture Model, v2f                      
Stationary with Initialization                      
Time Dependent with Initialization                      
Phase Transport                      
Stationary                      
Time Dependent                      
Phase Transport, Mixture Model, Algebraic yPlus                      
Stationary with Initialization                      
Time Dependent with Initialization                      
Phase Transport, Mixture Model, kepsilon                      
Stationary                      
Time Dependent                      
Phase Transport, Mixture Model, komega                      
Stationary                      
Stationary with Initialization                      
Time Dependent                      
Time Dependent with Initialization                      
Phase Transport, Mixture Model, LVEL                      
Stationary with Initialization                      
Time Dependent with Initialization                      
Phase Transport, Mixture Model, Laminar                      
Stationary                      
Time Dependent                      
Phase Transport, Mixture Model, LowReynolds kepsilon                      
Stationary with Initialization                      
Time Dependent with Initialization                      
Phase Transport, Mixture Model, Realizable kepsilon                      
Stationary                      
Time Dependent                      
Phase Transport, Mixture Model, SpalartAllmaras                      
Stationary with Initialization                      
Time Dependent with Initialization                      
Phase Transport, Mixture Model, SST                      
Stationary with Initialization                      
Time Dependent with Initialization                      
Phase Transport, Mixture Model, v2f                      
Stationary with Initialization                      
Time Dependent with Initialization                      
Rotating Machinery, Level Set, Algebraic yPlus                      
Time Dependent with Initialization                      
Rotating Machinery, Level Set, kepsilon                      
Time Dependent with Phase Initialization                      
Rotating Machinery, Level Set, komega                      
Time Dependent with Initialization                      
Time Dependent with Phase Initialization                      
Rotating Machinery, Level Set, LVEL                      
Time Dependent with Initialization                      
Rotating Machinery, Level Set, Laminar                      
Time Dependent with Phase Initialization                      
Rotating Machinery, Level Set, LowReynolds kepsilon                      
Time Dependent with Initialization                      
Rotating Machinery, Level Set, Realizable kepsilon                      
Time Dependent with Phase Initialization                      
Rotating Machinery, Level Set, SpalartAllmaras                      
Time Dependent with Initialization                      
Rotating Machinery, Level Set, SST                      
Time Dependent with Initialization                      
Rotating Machinery, Level Set, v2f                      
Time Dependent with Initialization                      
Rotating Machinery, Mixture Model, Algebraic yPlus                      
Frozen Rotor with Initialization^{1}                      
Time Dependent with Initialization^{1}                      
Rotating Machinery, Mixture Model, kepsilon                      
Frozen Rotor^{1}                      
Time Dependent^{1}                      
Rotating Machinery, Mixture Model, komega                      
Frozen Rotor with Initialization^{1}                      
Time Dependent with Initialization^{1}                      
Rotating Machinery, Mixture Model, LVEL                      
Frozen Rotor with Initialization^{1}                      
Time Dependent with Initialization^{1}                      
Rotating Machinery, Mixture Model, Laminar Flow                      
Frozen Rotor^{1}                      
Time Dependent^{1}                      
Rotating Machinery, Mixture Model, LowReynolds kepsilon                      
Frozen Rotor with Initialization^{1}                      
Time Dependent with Initialization^{1}                      
Rotating Machinery, Mixture Model, Realizable kepsilon                      
Frozen Rotor^{1}                      
Time Dependent^{1}                      
Rotating Machinery, Mixture Model, SpalartAllmaras                      
Frozen Rotor with Initialization^{1}                      
Time Dependent with Initialization^{1}                      
Rotating Machinery, Mixture Model, SST                      
Frozen Rotor with Initialization^{1}                      
Time Dependent with Initialization^{1}                      
Rotating Machinery, Mixture Model, v2f                      
Frozen Rotor with Initialization^{1}                      
Time Dependent with Initialization^{1}                      
Rotating Machinery, Phase Field, Algebraic yPlus                      
Time Dependent with Initialization                      
Rotating Machinery, Phase Field, kepsilon                      
Time Dependent with Phase Initialization                      
Rotating Machinery, Phase Field, komega                      
Time Dependent with Initialization                      
Rotating Machinery, Phase Field, LVEL                      
Time Dependent with Initialization                      
Rotating Machinery, Phase Field, Laminar                      
Time Dependent with Phase Initialization                      
Rotating Machinery, Phase Field, LowReynolds kepsilon                      
Time Dependent with Initialization                      
Rotating Machinery, Phase Field, Realizable kepsilon                      
Time Dependent with Phase Initialization                      
Rotating Machinery, Phase Field, SpalartAllmaras                      
Time Dependent with Initialization                      
Rotating Machinery, Phase Field, SST                      
Time Dependent with Initialization                      
Rotating Machinery, Phase Field, v2f                      
Time Dependent with Initialization                      
ThreePhase Flow, Phase Field, Laminar                      
Time Dependent                      
TwoPhase Flow, Level Set, Algebraic yPlus                      
Time Dependent with Initialization                      
TwoPhase Flow, Level Set, kepsilon                      
Time Dependent with Phase Initialization                      
TwoPhase Flow, Level Set, komega                      
Time Dependent with Initialization                      
Time Dependent with Phase Initialization                      
TwoPhase Flow, Level Set, LVEL                      
Time Dependent with Initialization                      
TwoPhase Flow, Level Set, Laminar                      
Time Dependent with Phase Initialization                      
TwoPhase Flow, Level Set, LowReynolds kepsilon                      
Time Dependent with Initialization                      
TwoPhase Flow, Level Set, Realizable kepsilon                      
Time Dependent with Phase Initialization                      
TwoPhase Flow, Level Set, SpalartAllmaras                      
Time Dependent with Initialization                      
TwoPhase Flow, Level Set, SST                      
Time Dependent with Initialization                      
TwoPhase Flow, Level Set, v2f                      
Time Dependent with Initialization                      
TwoPhase Flow, Phase Field, Algebraic yPlus                      
Time Dependent with Initialization                      
TwoPhase Flow, Phase Field, kepsilon                      
Transient with Phase Initialization                      
TwoPhase Flow, Phase Field, komega                      
Time Dependent with Initialization                      
Time Dependent with Phase Initialization                      
TwoPhase Flow, Phase Field, LVEL                      
Time Dependent with Initialization                      
TwoPhase Flow, Phase Field, Laminar                      
Time Dependent with Phase Initialization                      
TwoPhase Flow, Phase Field, LowReynolds kepsilon                      
Time Dependent with Initialization                      
TwoPhase Flow, Phase Field, Realizable kepsilon                      
Time Dependent with Phase Initialization                      
TwoPhase Flow, Phase Field, SpalartAllmaras                      
Time Dependent with Initialization                      
TwoPhase Flow, Phase Field, SST                      
Time Dependent with Initialization                      
TwoPhase Flow, Phase Field, v2f                      
Time Dependent with Initialization                      
Laminar Flow                      
Stationary                      
Stationary, OneWay Coupled, NITF                      
Time Dependent                      
Time Dependent, OneWay Coupled, NITF                      
LES RBVM                      
Time Dependent                      
LES RBVMWV                      
Time Dependent                      
LES Smagorinsky                      
Time Dependent                      
Nonisothermal Pipe Flow                      
Stationary                      
Time Dependent                      
Rotating Machinery, Algebraic yPlus                      
Frozen Rotor with Initialization^{1}                      
Frozen Rotor, OneWay Coupled with Initialization, NITF^{1}                      
Time Dependent with Initialization^{1}                      
Time Dependent, OneWay Coupled with Initialization, NITF^{1}                      
Rotating Machinery, kepsilon                      
Frozen Rotor^{1}                      
Frozen Rotor, OneWay Coupled, NITF^{1}                      
Time Dependent^{1}                      
Time Dependent, OneWay Coupled, NITF^{1}                      
Rotating Machinery, komega                      
Frozen Rotor^{1}                      
Frozen Rotor with Initialization^{1}                      
Frozen Rotor, OneWay Coupled with Initialization, NITF^{1}                      
Frozen Rotor, OneWay Coupled, NITF^{1}                      
Time Dependent^{1}                      
Time Dependent with Initialization^{1}                      
Time Dependent, OneWay Coupled with Initialization, NITF^{1}                      
Time Dependent, OneWay Coupled, NITF^{1}                      
Rotating Machinery, LVEL                      
Frozen Rotor with Initialization^{1}                      
Frozen Rotor, OneWay Coupled with Initialization, NITF^{1}                      
Time Dependent with Initialization^{1}                      
Time Dependent, OneWay Coupled with Initialization, NITF^{1}                      
Rotating Machinery, Laminar Flow                      
Frozen Rotor^{1}                      
Frozen Rotor, OneWay Coupled, NITF^{1}                      
Time Dependent^{1}                      
Time Dependent, OneWay Coupled, NITF^{1}                      
Rotating Machinery, LowReynolds kepsilon                      
Frozen Rotor with Initialization^{1}                      
Frozen Rotor, OneWay Coupled with Initialization, NITF^{1}                      
Time Dependent with Initialization^{1}                      
Time Dependent, OneWay Coupled with Initialization, NITF^{1}                      
Rotating Machinery, Realizable kepsilon                      
Frozen Rotor^{1}                      
Frozen Rotor, OneWay Coupled, NITF^{1}                      
Time Dependent^{1}                      
Time Dependent, OneWay Coupled, NITF^{1}                      
Rotating Machinery, SpalartAllmaras                      
Frozen Rotor with Initialization^{1}                      
Frozen Rotor, OneWay Coupled with Initialization, NITF^{1}                      
Time Dependent with Initialization^{1}                      
Time Dependent, OneWay Coupled with Initialization, NITF^{1}                      
Rotating Machinery, SST                      
Frozen Rotor with Initialization^{1}                      
Frozen Rotor, OneWay Coupled with Initialization, NITF^{1}                      
Time Dependent with Initialization^{1}                      
Time Dependent, OneWay Coupled with Initialization, NITF^{1}                      
Rotating Machinery, v2f                      
Frozen Rotor with Initialization^{1}                      
Frozen Rotor, OneWay Coupled with Initialization, NITF^{1}                      
Time Dependent with Initialization^{1}                      
Time Dependent, OneWay Coupled with Initialization, NITF^{1}                      
Turbulent Flow, Algebraic yPlus                      
Stationary with Initialization                      
Stationary, OneWay Coupled with Initialization, NITF                      
Time Dependent with Initialization                      
Time Dependent, OneWay Coupled with Initialization, NITF                      
Turbulent Flow, kepsilon                      
Stationary                      
Stationary, OneWay Coupled, NITF                      
Time Dependent                      
Time Dependent, OneWay Coupled, NITF                      
Turbulent Flow, komega                      
Stationary                      
Stationary with Initialization                      
Stationary, OneWay Coupled with Initialization, NITF                      
Stationary, OneWay Coupled, NITF                      
Time Dependent                      
Time Dependent with Initialization                      
Time Dependent, OneWay Coupled with Initialization, NITF                      
Time Dependent, OneWay Coupled, NITF                      
Turbulent Flow, LVEL                      
Stationary with Initialization                      
Stationary, OneWay Coupled with Initialization, NITF                      
Time Dependent with Initialization                      
Time Dependent, OneWay Coupled with Initialization, NITF                      
Turbulent Flow, LowReynolds kepsilon                      
Stationary with Initialization                      
Stationary, OneWay Coupled with Initialization, NITF                      
Time Dependent with Initialization                      
Time Dependent, OneWay Coupled with Initialization, NITF                      
Turbulent Flow, Realizable kepsilon                      
Stationary                      
Stationary, OneWay Coupled, NITF                      
Time Dependent                      
Time Dependent, OneWay Coupled, NITF                      
Turbulent Flow, SpalartAllmaras                      
Stationary with Initialization                      
Stationary, OneWay Coupled with Initialization, NITF                      
Time Dependent with Initialization                      
Time Dependent, OneWay Coupled with Initialization, NITF                      
Turbulent Flow, SST                      
Stationary with Initialization                      
Stationary, OneWay Coupled with Initialization, NITF                      
Time Dependent with Initialization                      
Time Dependent, OneWay Coupled with Initialization, NITF                      
Turbulent Flow. v2f                      
Stationary with Initialization                      
Stationary, OneWay Coupled with Initialization, NITF                      
Time Dependent with Initialization                      
Time Dependent, OneWay Coupled with Initialization, NITF                      
Brinkman Equations                      
Stationary                      
Time Dependent                      
Darcy's Law                      
Stationary                      
Time Dependent                      
Fracture Flow                      
Stationary                      
Time Dependent                      
Free and Porous Media Flow                      
Stationary                      
Time Dependent                      
Multiphase Flow in Porous Media                      
Stationary                      
Time Dependent                      
Phase Transport in Porous Media                      
Stationary                      
Time Dependent                      
Richards Equation                      
Stationary                      
Time Dependent                      
TwoPhase Darcy's Law                      
Stationary                      
Time Dependent                      
Molecular Flow                      
Stationary                      
Time Dependent (quasistatic)                      
Slip Flow                      
Stationary                      
Time Dependent                      
Transitional Flow                      
Stationary                      
Time Dependent                      
Creeping Flow                      
Stationary                      
Time Dependent                      
Laminar Flow                      
Stationary                      
Time Dependent                      
LES RBVM                      
Time Dependent                      
LES RBVMWV                      
Time Dependent                      
LES Smagorinsky                      
Time Dependent                      
Pipe Flow                      
Stationary                      
Time Dependent                      
Rotating Machinery, Algebraic yPlus                      
Frozen Rotor with Initialization                      
Time Dependent with Initialization                      
Rotating Machinery, LVEL                      
Frozen Rotor with Initialization                      
Time Dependent with Initialization                      
Rotating Machinery, Laminar Flow                      
Frozen Rotor                      
Time Dependent                      
Rotating Machinery, Turbulent Flow, kepsilon                      
Frozen Rotor                      
Time Dependent                      
Rotating Machinery, Turbulent Flow, komega                      
Frozen Rotor with Initialization^{1}                      
Time Dependent with Initialization^{1}                      
Rotating Machinery, Turbulent Flow, lowRe kepsilon                      
Frozen Rotor with Initialization^{1}                      
Time Dependent with Initialization^{1}                      
Rotating Machinery, Turbulent Flow, Realizable kepsilon                      
Frozen Rotor^{1}                      
Time Dependent^{1}                      
Rotating Machinery, Turbulent Flow, SpalartAllmaras                      
Frozen Rotor with Initialization^{1}                      
Time Dependent with Initialization^{1}                      
Rotating Machinery, Turbulent Flow, SST                      
Frozen Rotor with Initialization^{1}                      
Time Dependent with Initialization^{1}                      
Rotating Machinery, Turbulent Flow, v2f                      
Frozen Rotor with Initialization^{1}                      
Time Dependent with Initialization^{1}                      
Turbulent Flow, Algebraic yPlus                      
Stationary with Initialization                      
Time Dependent with Initialization                      
Turbulent Flow, kepsilon                      
Stationary                      
Time Dependent                      
Turbulent Flow, komega                      
Stationary                      
Stationary with Initialization                      
Time Dependent                      
Time Dependent with Initialization                      
Turbulent Flow, LVEL                      
Stationary with Initialization                      
Time Dependent with Initialization                      
Turbulent Flow, LowReynolds kepsilon                      
Stationary with Initialization                      
Time Dependent with Initialization                      
Turbulent Flow, Realizable kepsilon                      
Stationary                      
Time Dependent                      
Turbulent Flow, SpalartAllmaras                      
Stationary with Initialization                      
Time Dependent with Initialization                      
Turbulent Flow, SST                      
Stationary with Initialization                      
Time Dependent with Initialization                      
Turbulent Flow, v2f                      
Stationary with Initialization                      
Time Dependent with Initialization                      
Viscoelastic Flow                      
Stationary                      
Time Dependent                      
Water Hammer                      
Time Dependent                      
ThinFilm Flow Domain, 2D                      
Modified Reynolds Equation (Gas & Rarefied Gas Flow)                      
Eigenfrequency                      
Frequency Domain                      
Stationary                      
Time Dependent                      
Reynolds Equation (Liquid or Gas Flow)                      
Eigenfrequency                      
Frequency Domain                      
Stationary                      
Time Dependent                      
ThinFilm Flow, Edge, 2D                      
Modified Reynolds Equation (Gas and Rarefied Gas Flow)                      
Eigenfrequency                      
Frequency Domain                      
Stationary                      
Time Dependent                      
Reynolds Equation (Liquid or Gas Flow)                      
Eigenfrequency                      
Frequency Domain                      
Stationary                      
Time Dependent                      
ThinFilm Flow, Shell, 3D                      
Modified Reynolds Equation (Gas and Rarefied Gas Flow)                      
Eigenfrequency                      
Frequency Domain                      
Stationary                      
Time Dependent                      
Reynolds Equation (Liquid or Gas Flow)                      
Eigenfrequency                      
Frequency Domain                      
Stationary                      
Time Dependent                      
Atmosphere/Gauge                      
Boundary Stress                      
Diffuse Flux                      
ElectrodeElectrolyte Interface Coupling                      
Evaporation                      
External Fluid Interface                      
Fan                      
FluidFluid Interface                      
Flux Discontinuity, Porous Media                      
Free Surface                      
Grille                      
Hydraulic Head, Porous Media                      
Inflow Boundary, Porous Media                      
Initial Interface, TwoPhase Flow                      
Interior Fan                      
Interior Wall, Porous Media                      
Marangoni effect (multiphysics coupling)                      
Mass Flux, Porous Media                      
No Flow, Porous Media                      
Number Density Reconstruction (Interior Boundaries Only)                      
Open Boundary, Normal Stress or No Viscous Stress                      
Periodic Flow Condition                      
Pervious Layer, Porous Media                      
Pipe Connection (multiphysics coupling)^{1}                      
Plane Symmetry                      
Pressure Head, Porous Media                      
Pressure, Porous Media                      
Reservoir                      
Screen                      
Stationary Free Surface                      
Surface Temperature                      
Symmetry Boundary Condition                      
Thin Barrier, Porous Media                      
Total Vacuum                      
Vacuum Pump                      
Vacuum Pump (Free Molecular Flow)                      
Fully developed flow                      
Mass Flow Rate and Mass Flux                      
Standard Mass Flow Rate (SCCM)                      
Turbulent Flow                      
Velocity, Pressure, Normal Stress                      
Fully developed flow                      
Pressure, Velocity                      
Exterior Dispersed Phase Conditions, Mixture Model                      
Exterior Gas Conditions, Bubbly Flow                      
Electroosmotic Velocity                      
External Slip Wall                      
Interior Slip Wall                      
Interior Wetted Wall                      
Interior Wetted Wall (multiphysics coupling)                      
NavierSlip                      
Rotating Shaft                      
Slip or No Slip, Sliding, Moving or Leaking Wall                      
Slip Velocity using Viscous Slip and Thermal Creep                      
Slip Wall                      
Wetted Wall and Moving Wetted Wall                      
Wetted Wall and Moving Wetted Wall (multiphysics coupling)                      
Interior Wall                      
NavierSlip                      
No Slip                      
Slip                      
Molecular Flow Wall Boundary Conditions                      
Adsorption/Desorption                      
Deposition                      
Outgassing Wall                      
Wall                      
Turbulent Flow Wall Functions                      
Rough Walls                      
Contact Angle                      
Line Mass Source                      
Point Mass Source                      
Pressure Point Constraint                      
Number Density Reconstruction                      
Bend                      
Closed                      
Contraction/Expansion                      
Local Friction Loss                      
nway junction                      
No Flow                      
Pipe Connection (multiphysics coupling)^{1}                      
Pump                      
TJunction                      
Valve                      
Yjunction                      
Inlet                      
Mass flow rate                      
Pump                      
Reservoir                      
Standard flow rate (SCCM)                      
Velocity                      
Volumetric flow rate                      
Bingham, NonNewtonian                      
Power Law, NonNewtonian                      
Newtonian                      
GasLiquid, effective Reynolds number                      
GasLiquid, friction factor multiplier                      
Single phase                      
Border Flow                      
Inlet                      
Outlet                      
Symmetry                      
Wall                      
Generate New Turbulence Model Interface                      
Liquids and Gases                      
Boundary Conditions                      
Accumulator                      
Bounce                      
Boundary Load                      
Diffuse Reflection                      
Disappear                      
Erosion                      
Freeze                      
General Reflection                      
Inlet                      
Isotropic Scattering                      
Mass Deposition                      
Mass Flux                      
Mixed Diffuse and Specular Reflection                      
Outlet                      
Particle Continuity                      
Particle Counter                      
Pass Through                      
Periodic Condition                      
Secondary Emission                      
Stick                      
Symmetry                      
Formulation                      
Massless                      
Newtonian                      
Newtonian, First Order                      
Particle Properties and Forces                      
Accumulator                      
Acoustophoretic Radiation Force                      
Auxiliary Dependent Variables                      
Brownian Force                      
Charge Accumulation                      
Drag Force                      
Electric Force                      
General Force                      
Gravity Force                      
Lift Force                      
Magnetic Force                      
Magnetophoretic Force                      
Particle Counter                      
Particle Properties                      
ParticleParticle Interaction                      
Pressure Gradient Force                      
Rotating Frame                      
Thermophoretic Force                      
Virtual Mass Force                      
Volume Force Calculation                      
Dielectrophoretic Force                      
Shell                      
Droplet Breakup                      
KelvinHelmholtz Breakup Model                      
RayleighTaylor Breakup Model                      
Velocity Reinitalization                      
Accumulator                      
Secondary Emission                      
Particle Release                      
Density Based                      
Mass and Diameter Distributions                      
Mesh Based                      
Nozzle                      
Random                      
Release from Data File                      
Release from Edge                      
Release from Point                      
Uniform Distribution                      
Release Distributions                      
Constant Speed, Cone                      
Constant Speed, Hemispherical                      
Constant Speed, Lambertian                      
Constant Speed, Spherical                      
Maxwellian                      
Release from Grid                      
Cylindrical Grid                      
Hexapolar Grid                      
Rectangular Grid                      
FluidMembrane Interaction                      
FluidStructure Interaction                      
Laminar Flow                      
Membrane                      
FluidMembrane Interaction, Fixed Geometry                      
FluidStructure Interaction                      
Laminar Flow                      
Membrane                      
